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Stone tools and fauna remains have shown that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago.
The original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Bushmen (San) and Khoi peoples.
This massive cattle-raising complex prospered until 1300 AD or so, and seems to have regressed following the collapse of Mapungubwe.
During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi, moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari.
It is unclear when Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north, although AD 600 seems to be a consensus estimate.
In that era, the ancestors of the modern-day Kalanga moved into what is now the north-eastern areas of the country.
What these records show is that the Bangwaketse had become the predominant power in the region.
Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, and used their military prowess to raid their neighbors.
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966.
This equilibrium came to end during the Mfecane period, 1823–1843, when a succession of invading peoples from South Africa entered the country.
Although the Bangwaketse were able to defeat the invading Bakololo in 1826, over time all the major chiefdoms in Botswana were attacked, weakened, and impoverished.
Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone.
Formerly one of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US per year in the late 1960s—Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies.