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All concentration values along the x-axes are in picomolar. coli ∆thi G cells sustain growth using sub-picomolar concentrations of exogenous c HET or B1. coli ∆thi G mutant exhibited no notable growth upon supplied HET up to 10 p M) of exogenous HET are required to sustain growth of E. Mean maximum yields for triplicate cultures are plotted along with their respective standard deviations.

Asterisks denote significant differences (p can use exogenous c HET. coli (Figs 1, 2), equivalent concentrations of HET also sustained growth of the Arabidopsis mutant (Fig. This result highlights a key difference between plants and (aquatic) microbes, in that the latter are equipped to salvage B1 from very low concentrations of exogenous precursors (Figs 1, 2), likely as a result of adaption within an environment where precursor(s) are a community currency circulated between producers and consumers.

tauri is adapted to use minute amounts of c HET dissolved in seawater.

The c HET stock used in these experiments contained no detectable B1 cross-contamination, but did contain trace (0.5%) amounts of HET contamination based on selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-SRM) (Supplementary Table S1).

This rigorous biochemical evidence points to c HET as a core component of de novo B1 biosynthesis; nonetheless, the vast majority of B1-related research and reviews to date make no mention of c HET (or phosphorylated or adenylated forms) and instead describe only synthesis and use of HET(−P), low additions of c HET (plus the pyrimidine precursor HMP) promoted growth (Fig.

1), confirming our hypothesis and revealing that O.

(A) RCC745 grows when provided different concentrations of c HET (plus 1 n M HMP) or B1 (1 n M; as a positive control).

S1), alongside prior biochemical evidence of c HET-P generation by bacteria and plants component of de novo B1 biosynthesis (Fig. Establishing that c HET is central to de novo B1 biosynthesis pinpoints B1-prototrophic organisms as sources of the thiazole to co-occurring populations, i.e. Solid and dashed purple arrows represent usage and generation (via degradation) of HET reported previously.Pictures were taken 14 days after germination and are representative of at least 30 plants. Collectively, our findings establish c HET as a valuable microbial B1-related currency and component of de novo B1 biosynthesis.Previously, HET was the only thiazole considered in research investigating B1 salvage.Asterisks denote a significant difference (p Unlike wildtype O.tauri, a ∆thi M (lacking Thi M) mutant line did not grow on supplied c HET (Fig.

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