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-OS, -osis : old Latin ianitos, labos, clamos (see 45, N.). -6s, -or is : flos, flower; glos, sister-in-law; lepos,charm; m5s(m.), custom; -6s (n.), mouth ; ros,dew.
-us, -uris: tellus (f.), earth; mus (m.), mouse; the neuters: crus, leg; ius, right; pus, pus; rus, country; tus, incense.
r5bus (47, 4), and v5mer, plough- share, vomis (47, 2). Arbor, and many stems in -or, were originally stems in -s ; the s became r (47) between two vowels in the oblique cases, and then reacted upon the Nominative.
Neuter are acer, maple ; ador, spelt ; aequor, sea ; cadaver, dead body ; cicer, pea ; iter, way ; laser, a plant ~ laver, a plant ; marmor, marble ; papaver, poppy ; piper, pepper ; slier, willow ; siser, skirret ; suber, cork ; tuber, tumor ; fiber, teat ; v6r, spring ; [verber], thong. In the oblique cases, the s of the stem usually passes over, between two vowels, into r (rhotacism).
For the accentuation and pronunciation of Latin we have also CORSSEN'S Aussprache, Vocalismus und Betonung der lateinischen Sprache (1868, 1870), and SEELMANN'S Die Aussprache des Latein (1885). The question of the correct measurement of hidden quantities is still an unsettled one in Latin ; for the sake of consistency the usage of MARX, Hulfsbuchlein fur die Aussprache der lateinischen Vokale in positionslangen Silben (2d edition, 1889) has been followed. -ar,-(tris: salar, trout ; proper names like Caesar, Hamilcar; the neuters baccar, a plant ; iubar, radiance ; nectar, nectar. -er -ris : four words, accipiter, hawk ; frater, brother ; mater, mother ; pater, father. -or, -oris : very many abstract words, as amor, love; color, colour; clamor, outcry ; soror, sister ; uxor, wife ; these may come from stems in 5s (see 47, 4) ; also verbals in -tor, as victor. -ur, -uris : augur, augur ; furfur, bran ; turtur, dove ; vultur, vulture; lemures (pi.), ghosts, and a few proper names ; also the neuters fulgur, lightning ; guttur, throat ; murmur, murmur ; sulfur, sulphur. in -oris ; two of these, femur, iecur, have also the irregular forms feminis and iecineris, iecinoris, iocinoris.
For the Etymology we must refer to BUCHELER'S Grundriss der lateinischen Declination (3d edition, by WINDEKILDE, 1879) and to SCHWEIZER-SIDLER'S Lateinische Grammatik (1888) ; also to many articles in various journals, most of which are given by STOLZ. The quotations have been made throughout from the Teubner Text editions except as follows : Plautus is cited from the Triumvirate edition of RITSCHL ; Vergil from the Editio Maior of RIBBECK ; Ovid and Terence from the Tauchnitz Texts ; Horace from the Editio Minor of KELLER and HOLDER ; Lucretius from the edition of MUNRO; Ennius and Lucilius from the editions of L. Also some proper names, as Di Sspiter, Falacer, and the names of the months, September, October, November, December.
Before s a P-mute is retained, a K-mute combines with it to form x, a T-mute is dropped. Feminine are arbor, tree ; mulier, woman ; soror, sister ; uzor, wife. The Nominative has no additional s, and changes in masculines e to i, and in neuters e or o to u before s. by compensatory lengthening), and some of its compounds (with change of vowel), as bes, semis. i), pulvis (occasionally pulvis), dust; v Gmia, plough- share (see 45, R. -us, -eris : Venus, and occasionally plgnus, pledge (see 4). Masculine are salar, trout, and proper names in -ar ; augur, augur ; furfur, bran ; names of animals in -ur and a few proper names in -ur. -as, -assis : as (m.), a copper (vowel long in Nom. -is, -eris : cinis, ashes; cucumis, cucumber (see 57, R. -us, -oris : corpus, body ; decus, grace ; pignus, pledge, and twelve others ; on robus (see 45, R. -eps, upis : auceps, fowler, and the old Latin manceps, contractor. -ex, -egis : grex, herd ; aquilex, water-inspector.