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The rules vary depending upon whether the venue is a criminal court, civil court, or family court, and they vary by jurisdiction.
The quantum of evidence is the amount of evidence needed; the quality of proof is how reliable such evidence should be considered.
Evidence must be relevant – that is, it must be directed at proving or disproving a legal element.
However, the relevance of evidence is ordinarily a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition for the admissibility of evidence.
The rules of evidence were developed over several centuries and are based upon the rules from Anglo-American common law brought to the New World by early settlers.
The purpose is to be fair to both parties, disallowing the raising of allegations without a basis in provable fact.
Such illegal evidence is known as the fruit of the poisonous tree and is normally not permitted at trial.
For example, relevant evidence may be excluded if it is unfairly prejudicial, confusing, or the relevance or irrelevance of evidence cannot be determined by logical analysis.
There is also general agreement that assessment of relevance or irrelevance involves or requires judgements about probabilities or uncertainties. Many legal scholars and judges agree that ordinary reasoning, or common sense reasoning, plays an important role.
They are sometimes criticized as a legal technicality, but are an important part of the system for achieving a just result.
Perhaps the most important of the rules of evidence is that, in general, hearsay testimony is inadmissible (although there are many exceptions to this rule).
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James Bradley Thayer reported in 1898 that even English lawyers were surprised by the complexity of American evidence law, such as its reliance on exceptions to preserve evidentiary objections for appeal.